Dr Jane Calderwood Norton

BA/LLB(Hons)(Auckland); LLM (Columbia); DPhil (Oxford)

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Senior Lecturer


Jane joined the law faculty from the United Kingdom where she completed her doctorate at Balliol College, Oxford as a Clarendon Scholar and was then a lecturer at Birmingham Law School. Prior to living in Oxford she was an Associate-in-Law at Columbia Law School on a Fulbright Scholarship and a litigator in a large New York commercial law firm.

Jane has also been a Judges' Clerk at the Auckland High Court and is a graduate of the University of Auckland.

In 2018, Jane was awarded the Faculty of Law's Early Career Research Excellence Award.

Research | Current

Jane's research lies in the areas of constitutional law and legal theory. She is particularly interested in how the state recognises or enforces non-legal norms and how it regulates voluntary associations. Her research also looks at the relationship between public law norms (such as non-discrimination and procedural fairness) and what has traditionally been seen as private activity. This research interest extends to examining legal issues around trust law, contract law, and justice within the family. 

Jane has a particular interest in discrimination law, religious freedom and associational freedom and her book Freedom of Religious Organizations was published by Oxford University Press in August 2016 and was funded by the British Academy. In 2017 she was awarded the JF Northey Memorial Book Award for the best book published by a New Zealand-based author.

In additional to her work on religious freedom, she has published on religious tribunals, freedom of expression and privacy, and evidence.

She has recently finished two projects with Dr Tarun Khaitan (Oxford/Melbourne) that examine the conceptual and doctrinal distinctions between religious freedom and religious discrimination protection. This research will be published in two interrelated articles in the International Journal of Constitutional Law in 2019 and is available on SSRN. She is currently researching religious education and rights of children and writing papers on public benefit in the law of charities and expressive harm in discrimination law. She is also developing a long-term project that examines application of non-legal norms to private disputes.

Teaching | Current

  • Rights and Freedoms (LAWPUBL 428)
  • Equity (LAW 306)
  • Public Law (LAW 211)
  • Administrative Law (LAWPUBL 401) (with Professor Janet McLean)
  • Studies In Public Law (Honours Seminar with Associate Professor Hanna Wilberg)

Postgraduate supervision

Legal Protection of Migrant Domestic Workers


  • Clarendon Scholar (Oxford)
  • Fulbright Scholar (Columbia)
  • Auckland District Law Society Prize for the best undergraduate record (Auckland)
  • Early Career Research Excellence Award 2018


  • Overseas Visitor Coordinator
  • Staff Seminar Coordinator
  • Auckland University Law Review Faculty Liaison

Areas of expertise

  • Freedom of religion
  • Freedom of expression
  • Freedom of association
  • Discrimination law
  • Bills of Rights
  • Charitable trusts
  • Voluntary associations and unincorporated societies

Committees/Professional groups/Services

  • Admitted to the New Zealand and New York Bar (non-practicing).
  • Blackstone Chambers (London) - Academic Panel member.

Selected publications and creative works (Research Outputs)

As of 29 October 2020 there will be no automatic updating of 'selected publications and creative works' from Research Outputs. Please continue to keep your Research Outputs profile up to date.
  • Khaitan, T., & Norton, J. C. (2020). Religion in human rights law: A normative restatement. ICON-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, 18 (1), 111-129. 10.1093/icon/moaa008
  • Khaitan, T., & Norton, J. C. (2019). The right to freedom of religion and the right against religious discrimination: Theoretical distinctions. ICON-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, 17 (4), 1125-1145. 10.1093/icon/moz087
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/50345
  • Norton, J. C. (2019). Charities and freedom of expression. New Zealand Law Journal, June (5), 174-179. Related URL.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/48232
  • Norton, J. (2019). Written Submission to the NZ Minister for the Community and Voluntary Sector on the review of the Charities Act 2005 - Modernising the Charities Act 2005.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/47684
  • Norton, J. (2018). No free speech crisis in NZ. https://www.auckland.ac.nz/en/news/2018/07/30/no-free-speech-crisis-nz.html. Related URL.
  • Norton, J. C. (2018). Controversial charities and public benefit. New Zealand Law Journal (2), 64-68.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/40802
  • Norton, J. C. (2017). Farrah Ahmed, Religious freedom under the personal law system [Book review]. International journal of law, policy, and the family, 31 (1), 126-130. 10.1093/lawfam/ebw019
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/39275
  • Norton, J. C. (2017). Freedom of Religious Organizations: A Reply. Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy, 42, 296-308. Related URL.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/48327


Contact details

Office hours

Mondays, 11-12

Tuesdays, 3:15-4:15

Primary office location

1-11 SHORT STREET - Bldg 810
Level 7, Room 729
New Zealand

Web links