Associate Professor Lesley Ann Gardner

Cert. in Teaching and Learning Skills, DPhil, MSc (ADMIS) and BSc (Hons) in Geography


Lesley's area of research interest covers several areas: Social Media, E-learning Innovation, Hypermedia and heritage data handling. Her doctoral research focused on the field of hypertext and software development. She has since explored the application of hypermedia, e-learning support and innovation through many vehicles.  She has also researches and supports postgraduate students in many areas associated with social media and education.
Current research at the Department of Information Systems and Operations Management at the University of Auckland, focuses on the analysis of social media trends and the modelling of multimedia heritage data sources to create robust data models and management tools.

Special Interests:

Social Media
E-Learning Innovation


Research | Current





Gardner, L. A. (2007). Practice case studies for information systems students: Victoria, Australia: Thomson, 2007.

Chapters in Books


Bastek, M., Tuunanen, T., & Gardner-Whitehead, L.A.  (2013). CONSUMER INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS SERVICES – A CASE STUDY OF THE IPTV PROVIDERS. In: Consumer Information Systems and Relationship Management:Design, Implementation, and Use, (Eds.), Lin, A. and Foster. J. Idea.


Vaidya, R., Myers, M.D., & Gardner, L. (2011). The design – reality gap: The impact of stakeholder strategies on IS implementation in developing countries. In: Nüttgens, M., Gadatsch, A., Kautz, K., Schirmer, I., & Blinn, N. (Eds.), Governance and Sustainability in Information Systems. Managing the Transfer and Diffusion of IT, (366 ed.), p119-134, New York, Springer.


Gardner, L. A. (2010). The Effect of Hypermedia, Its Influence on Current and Future Business And Social Interaction. In J. Toland (Ed.), Return to Tomorrow: 50 years of Computing in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Computer Society


Gardner, L.A. and Whitehead D. C., Information Systems for Environmental Monitoring in New Zealand Local Government, In "Information Technology Diffusion in the Asia Pacific: Perspectives on Policy, Electronic Commerce and Education", ED : Felix B. Tan, P. Scott Corbett, Oxnard and Yuk-Yong Wong, ISBN 1-878289-49-9

Journal Articles


McKenna, B., Tuunane, T. Gardner, L., (forthcoming), CONSUMERS' ADOPTION OF INFORMATION SERVICES, Information & Management, Elsevier.


Sheridan DP, Gardner L, (2012), Rubric Marking "Out of the Box": Saving Time & Adding Value to Teaching & Learning Journal of Interactive Learning Research 13(2):39-47


Tuunanen, T., Gardner-Whitehead, L.A., & Bastek, M.(2011), CONSUMER INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS SERVICE MODULES: CASE STUDY OF IPTV SERVICES. Service Science.


Gardner L. A., Sheridan D. and White D., 2002, A web-based learning and assessment system to support flexible education: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol.18 No.2 June pp. 125 - 136.


Gardner L. A. 2000, The Development of a Documentation Mechanism for Creating Maintainable Information Systems Using Hypertext, Special Issue of Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 10, No. 5-6, 2000, pp 561-581


Macredie R.A and Gardner L.A., 1996, Hypermedia Support for Information Systems Development: A Cognitive Modelling Perspective, Journal of Intelligent Systems, pp 95 - 113.


Gardner L.A., Patel N., and Taylor S.J.E., 1996, Active User Designs in Hypermedia for Better Simulation Model Specification, Journal of Intelligent Systems, pp 5 - 24.


Macredie R.A., Paul R. J. and Gardner L.A., 1995, Research Directions in the Centre for Information Systems (CIS), International Journal of Information Management. Vol. 15, no 4, pp 317 - 320.


Gardner L.A, Patel N., and Taylor S.J.E., 1995, Hypermedia for Manufacturing Simulation, The Journal of Manufacturing System Design.


Gardner L.A. and Paul R.J., 1994, A Fully Integrated Environment for Layered Development (FIELD) in Information Systems, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 14, no 6, pp 473 - 482.


Gardner L.A. and Paul R.J., 1993, Developing a Hypertext Geographic Information Systems for the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads Authority. Hypermedia, Vol. 5, no 2, pp 119 - 143.


Gardner L.A. and Paul R.J., 1991, Teaching Cartographic Design Using HyperCard, INFOR (Information Systems and Operational Research), Vol. 29, no 3, pp 225 - 239.

Conference Papers


VAIDYA, R., MYERS, M.D., AND GARDNER, L (2013). A typology of stakeholder strategies in agricultural marketing information systems in developing countries. Fifth World IT Forum, (IFIP), New Delhi. (forthcoming)


Gardner, L. & Sheridan, D., (2013). Where has all the noise gone - self motivation in peer support through social media, Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2013, (Forthcoming)


Sheridan, D. & Gardner, L. (2013). Low-Cost High-Impact Process Reengineering for Assessments, Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2013, (Forthcoming)


Sheridan, D. & Gardner, L. (2012). From Cellulose to Software: The Evolution of a Marking System. In T. Amiel & B. Wilson (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2012 (pp. 454-461). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.


Vaidya, R., Myers, M. & Gardner, L. A., (2011). Tracing ‘Reality’ In The Design – Reality Gap: A Stakeholder Practice Based Model For Is Implementation In Developing Countries. Paper presented at the IFIP WG 9.4: Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries 11th International Conference: Partners for Development - ICT Actors and Actions, Kathmandu, Nepal.


Vaidya, R., Myers, M., & Gardner-Whitehead, L. A. (2011). The design - reality gap: The impact of stakeholder strategies on IS implementation in developing countries. IFIP WG 8.6 Conference, Hamburg. (forthcoming)


Barboza, M Gardner, L. A., &. Myers, M. (2011), Information Technology Multisourcing At Fonterra: A Case Study Of The World’s Largest Exporter Of Dairy Ingredients. ECIS2011, Helsinki, Finland.


Gardner, L., Sheridan, D. & Andreas, N. (2011). Rubric Marking “Out of the Box”: Saving Time & Adding Value to Teaching & Learning. In T. Bastiaens & M. Ebner (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2011 (pp. 391-400). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from


McKenna, B., Gardner, L. A., & Myers, M. (2011). Issues In The Study Of Virtual World Social Movements. Paper presented at the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) 2011, Brisbane, Australia.


McKenna, B., Gardner, L. A., & Myers, M. (2011). Social Movements in World of Warcraft. Paper presented at the AMCIS, Detroit, USA.


McKenna, B., Tuunanen, T., & Gardner, L. A. (2011), Exploration of Location-Based Services Adoption. Paper presented at the Hawaiian International Conference on Systems Sciences, Kauai, Hawaii, USA.


Gardner, L. A., (2010). Hypertext to Web 2.0: A journey of vision, ridicule & innovation, Invited paper, NZCS 50 years of Innovation, Roturua.


McKenna, B., Gardner, L. A., & Myers, M. D. (2010). Chaotic Worlds: An Analysis of World of Warcraft. Paper presented at the 16th Americas conference on Information Systems, Lima, Peru.


Tuunanen, T., Cassab, H., & Gardner, L. A. (2010). Service Modularization: A Systematic Approach to Service Growth. Paper presented at the American Marketing Association - Frontiers in Service Conference, Karlstad, Sweden.


Tuunanen, T., Cassab, H., Gardner, L.A., Bastek, M., (2009). 'Service Modularization: Reuse versus Variation of Service Processes', 18th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, October 29 - November 1, 2009,


White D., Gardner L. A., and Sheridan, D., (2003). “Evolution and Mutation of a Knowledge focused through Generalization and Replication Computer Supported Learning Systems”, Proceedings of 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (CD/ROM), 01/06-09/2003, Computer Society Press.


Gardner L. A., Holdaway S. J., Whitehead, D. C., Kleine, J., Bader H. D., Gibbs R., (2003) "Heritage and the Role of Data Management Systems: A Prototype Model for New Zealand", Proceedings of 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (CD/ROM), 01/06-09/2003, Computer Society Press.


Sheridan, D. P., Gardner, L. A. and White, D.C., (2002) CECIL: The first web-based LMS ASCILITE Conference 2002, Auckland, New Zealand, 08 Dec 2002 - 11 Dec 2002. Proceedings of the ASCILITE Conference. 603-611.


Whitehead, D. C. and Gardner L. A., (2002), Visiting heritage landscapes; creating and using an Emedia fieldtrip as an educational resource, ED-MEDIA 2002, Denver Colorado, June 24-29, 2002 pp. 140.


Gardner, L.A., Sheridan, D.P., White, D. C. (2001) Computer Supported Learning. A Large-Scale, Web-based Learning and Assessment System to Support Flexible Education 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (CD/ROM), Computer Society Press, Hawaii, 03 Jan 2001 - 06 Jan 2001. Proceedings of # Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (CD/ROM). 355-363.


Gardner, L.A., and Sheridan, D. P., (2000), Cecil: An Enterprise wide and beyond education delivery system. Enticing the end-user - Reflections from Auckland WebNet 2000, 199 - 204., San Antonio, 30 Oct 2000 - 04 Nov 2000. Proceedings of WebNet, Norfolk, VA.. 199-204.


Gardner L. A. and Sheridan D., Large-Scale, Web-based Learning: Opportunities for Enterprise Modelling and Decision Making, WebNet 99, Honolulu, Hawaii, Oct. 25 - 30 1999.


Gardner L. A. and Patel N., Tailorable Modeller: Establishing Tailorable Information Systems Requirements Through Active User Designs in Hypermedia, submitted to the 4th European Conference on Information Systems, Lisbon, July 4 - 6, 1996.


Patel N., Gardner L. A. and Paul R. J., Moving Beyond The Fixed Point Theorem With Tailorable Information Systems, 3rd European Conference on Information Systems, Athens, June 1- 3 1995, pp 183 - 192.


Teaching | Current

Positions Held:
From To Institution Position Held
1994 1996 Brunel University, Department of Computer Science. Lecturer
1993 1994 Brunel University, Department of Computer Science. Research Fellow
1991 1993 University of Brighton, Department of Computing. Lecturer





Course Number

Course Name

2007 - 2009


Information Design

2008 - 2009


Business Computing (teaching and management)

2009 - 2010


Business Systems Analysis

2009 - date


Decision Support Systems



Special Topic - Social Networking and Virtual Communities

2011 - date


Contemporary Issues in Information Systems


Postgraduate supervision

Lesley Current supervises PhD, MCom and BCom (Hons) students in the areas of her research expertise.


Lesley is currently Deputy Head of Department and is also a member of several faculty committees.

Areas of expertise

Social Media, e-learning, learning and teaching innovation, hypermedia.

Committees/Professional groups/Services

  • Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society Member of the British Computer Society.
  • Teaching and Learning Committee.
  • Board of Undergraduate Studies.

Selected publications and creative works (Research Outputs)

  • Esnaashari, S., Gardner, L., & Rehm, M. (2018). Characterizing students based on their participation in the class. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). 10.1007/978-3-319-93846-2_16
  • Liew, A., & Gardner, L. (2017). The evolution of a new management control system at different stages of a new product development: Gone fishing with Leximancer. Paper presented at 2017 Auckland Region Accounting (ARA) Conference, Auckland, New Zealand. 28 November - 28 November 2017. (pp. 36).
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Angela Liew
  • Atiq, A., Gardner, L. A., & Srinivasan, A. (2017). An Experience-based collaborative service system model. Service Science, 9 (1), 14-35. 10.1287/serv.2016.0162
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Ananth Srinivasan
  • Tuunanen, T., Gardner, L., & Bastek, M. (2017). Consumer information systems as services: Study of emerging iptv market in New Zealand. Socio-Economic Perspectives on Consumer Engagement and Buying Behavior (pp. 154-174). 10.4018/978-1-5225-2139-6.ch008
  • Muthupoltotage, U. P., & Gardner, L. (2017). Analysing the relationships between digital literacy and self-regulated learning of undergraduates – A preliminary investigation. In N. Paspallis, M. Raspopoulos, C. Barry, M. Lang, H. Linger, Schneider C (Eds.) Information Systems Development: Advances in Methods, Tools and Management (ISD 2017 Proceedings), 1-12. Larnaca, Cyprus.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Udayangi Muthupoltotage
  • Nguyen, A., Sheridan, D., & Gardner, L. A. (2016). A conceptual model of intelligent learning system - Towards the future of educational ecosystems. Paper presented at Workshop on Information Technology and Systems (WITS) 2016, Dublin, Ireland. 15 December - 16 December 2016.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Don Sheridan
  • Perera, M. U., Gardner, L. A., & Peiris, A. (2016). Investigating the Interrelationship between Undergraduates’ Digital Literacy and Self-Regulated Learning Skills. Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh International Conference on Information Systems Dublin, Ireland. Related URL.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Udayangi Muthupoltotage, Ami Peiris
  • Sabbaghan, S., Gardner, L. A., & Chua, C. (2016). A Q-Sorting Methodology for Computer-Adaptive Surveys - Style "Research". Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems Istanbul, Turkey.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Sarah Sabbaghan, Cecil Chua


Contact details

Primary office location

Level 4, Room 456
New Zealand

Web links