Associate Professor Malcolm Drummond Tingle

BSc Hons, PhD


Current position

  • 2010 - present Associate Professor in Toxicology Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Auckland
  • 2016- Head of Department, Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Auckland

Academic appointments

  • 1997 - 2009 Lecturer/Senior Lecturer in Toxicology Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Auckland
  • 1994 - 1997 Lecturer Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool

Research appointments

  • 1990 Wellcome Postdoctoral Research Associate Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool
  • 1987 Postdoctoral Research Assistant Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool

Research | Current

Xenobiotic metabolism and toxicology

Research is focused on the role of xenobiotic metabolism in in drug action and toxicity: qualitative and quantitative analysis of biotransformation pathways, and their between subject and inter-species variability have been explored in the development of in vitro and in vivo models to assess human drug metabolism and toxicity. In particular, the balance between protective and detrimental pathways of drug metabolism has been a focus for more than 25 years. Several methods to alter this balance have been investigated: chemical modification, biochemical inhibition and altered expression of the enzymes involved in the bioactivation or detoxification of foreign compounds. Expertise involves the development of analytical techniques that allow accurate and precise determination of drug/metabolite concentrations in biological tissues for determination of pharmacokinetic parameters. This is applied to drugs in clinical use, as well as compounds under development for therapeutic use or, for example, to screen for their potential as species-selective rodenticides.

Teaching | Current


1997-            MEDSCI 306 Principles of Toxicology: Course co-ordinator/Director and principal lecturer (20 h/lectures; 72 h labs/ year)

1998-            Introduction to Pharmacology & Toxicology: Lecturer (5 h /year)

2007-            PHARMACY 111G Drugs and Society Lecturer: (1 h /year)

2016-            MEDSCI 303 Drug disposition and kinetics (1 h lecture & 12 h laboratories/ year)

2016-            PHARMACY 211 Applied Science for Pharmacy (4 h / year); Course Director (2018-)

2016-            PHARMACY 213 Dermatology module (2 h/ year)

Graduate Programmes

1998-           MEDSCI 715 Molecular Toxicology: Course co-ordinator/ Director and principal lecturer (18 h /year)

1998-           MEDSCI 721 Advanced Toxicology: Course co-ordinator/ Director and lecturer (24 h/ year)

1998-           MEDSCI 720 Biomedical Research Techniques: Lecturer (2 h /year)

1998-           MEDSCI 722 Clinical Pharmacology: Lecturer (2 h /year)

2002-            MEDSCI 710 Nutrition Mechanisms: Lecturer in (2 h /year)

2003-            MEDSCI 712 Critical evaluation of nutritional therapies: Lecturer (2 h /year)

2008-            NURSING 785 Therapeutics for Advanced Nurses: Lecturer (3 h /year)

2018-            MEDSCI 735 Concepts in Pharmacology: Course Director and lecturer (10 h/ year)

2019-            MEDSCI 745 Special Topic: Drug Development: Lecturer (2 h /year)

Postgraduate supervision


2000 Shufeng Zhou: Studies on the mechanisms involved in DMXAA-drug pharmacokinetic interactions

2003 Jocelyn Carr: Studies of satraplatin biotransformation

2004 Rachel McPherson: Effect of foodstuffs on the expression of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes

2007 Lincoln Tubbs: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of orally administered anthelmintics in kingfish aquaculture

2008 Magdalene Tang: Characterisation of the metabolites of CB1954 and analogues: their implications for clinical hepatotoxicity

2009 Shanthinie Ravindran: Studies into the systemic toxicity, metabolic profiling and receptor characterisation of the rat-selective toxicant norbormide

2009 Ushtana Antia: The Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of BZP and TFMPP - 'Party Pill' Drugs

2010 Deanna Bell: Development of an HPLC-ICP-MS assay and its application to studies of cisplatin

2010 Yongchuan Gu: Roles of biotransformation in the antitumour activity and toxicology of the hypoxia-activated prodrug PR-104

2011 Wing-Yee Lo: CYP2C19 pharmacogenetics: understanding the effect of disease on clinical phenotype

2013 Daniel Conole: Toxicodynamics of MetHb inducers, existing and novel compounds in rats

2014 Kathryn Burns: An investigation of the possible mechanisms for compromised drug metabolising activity in cancer

2015 Soo Hee Jeong: Pharmacokinetic and Dose Response Characteristics of Cytisine

2016 Gary D’Souza: Targeting cholinergic dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington’s disease

2016 Hao Chang: Adenosine Amine Congener as a cochlear rescue agent after acoustic trauma

2018 Brandi Bellissima Clozapine-associated myocarditis and cardiomyopathy: investigating a metabolic basis of toxicity


MSc (Honours):

1999 Natarsha Kruithof: In vitro assessment of mango and pawpaw as chemopreventors

1999 Nadine Birjoni: Inter-species variation in the expression of Aldehyde Oxidase

1999 Hamoud Al-Salmy: Inter-strain variability in aldehyde oxidase expression in the mouse

2000 Enying You: The pro- and antioxidant effects of alcoholic beverages

2001 Titaina Palacz: Effect of alcoholic beverages on the xenobiotic metabolic enzyme activities in vivo

2001 Marina Pajic: Potential role of retinoids in proguanil and docetaxel adverse reactions of the skin

2002 Teresa Wedding: An assessment of the chemopreventive properties of watercress and puha

2004 Joanne Lim: Inhibition of cyclophosphamide deactivation by thalidomide in the mouse

2004 Shanthinie Ravindran: The use of immunotoxin in species-specific pesticide development with the focus on the control of rats (Rattus norvegicus)

2005 Bryce Davis: Retinoic acid: A potential target in cutaneous adverse drug reactions

2008 Ken Yun-Kuan Chou: The Disposition of Party Pill Constituents

2009 Marcus Ladds: The toxicity of dinitrobenzamide anticancer agents in preclinical models

2009 Joyce Lee: Dimethylamylamine – quantification and drug-drug interactions

2009 Raymond Yung: Do mitochondria have a role in the hepatotoxicity of CB 1954?

2009 Kathryn Burns: A study of the urinary 6β-OHF/F ratio as a longitudinal measure of hepatic CYP3A4 activity

2011 Jun Peng Yang: The effect of chemical manipulation on methaemoglobin formation

2012 Jade Xiuyuan Zhang Anticholinergic burden and its effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia

2013 Betty Lee A study of the Roles of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 in the Human Liver Biotransformation of Bortezomib

2014 Keri Garlick: The potential of combination drug therapy for hepatitis B to cause mitochondrial damage

2014 Brent McGillvray: Understanding the role of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in 5-fluorouracil toxicity

2015 Ruohan Zhang: The Human Plasma Esterase Enzymes Involved in Bioactivation of the Prodrug Irinotecan (CPT-11)

2016 Liam Andrew: Characterisation of a putative rapid 5-FU metaboliser dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) phenotype in human liver

2016 Soo Min (Dannel) Lim: Determining the risk factors associated with developing clozapine-induced myocarditis in Schizophrenic patients.

2018 Kieran Deane Alder: Circulating microRNA as Biomarkers of Clozapine-Induced Cardiac Injury

Committees/Professional groups/Services

2010- New Zealand 3Rs Champion. This is a network of key opinion makers developed by MAF (now MPI) to act as contacts for information sharing as part of the New Zealand Three Rs Programme strategic plan to promote the understanding, application and development of the Three Rs in New Zealand 

May 2013-January 2014 Member of Interim Psychoactive Substances Expert Advisory Committee providing toxicological and clinical pharmacology expertise. This committee, established by the Ministry of Health as a consequence of the Psychoactive Substances Bill, provides advice to the Ministry on a robust testing regime to ensure that psychoactive substances used for a psychoactive effect will pose no more than a low risk of harm to the individuals using them. This includes the need for pre-clinical toxicology data (e.g. acute toxicity, repeat dose toxicity, genotoxicity, developmental toxicity, toxicokinetics and pharmacokinetics) as well as data from human clinical trials to determine the maximum approved human dose for the product, and to determine common adverse effects.

February 2014- Member of the Psychoactive Substances Expert Advisory Committee. The role of the committee is to evaluate, based on the results of trials, whether psychoactive products should be approved for use by individual; to advise the Authority on whether a psychoactive product should or should not be approved for use by individuals; to increase public awareness of PSEAC’s work in relation to psychoactive substances; and to contribute to the Authority’s work programme on the new psychoactive substances regime.  In carrying out its functions, PSEAC will take account of government policy on health and disability and psychoactive products; be cognisant of the importance of minimising costs and spending taxpayer funding wisely; and engage with other experts, as necessary, if the PSEAC lacks the expertise needed for particular advice.

November 2013- Member of the National Animal Ethics Advisory Committee (nominated by the Health Research Council of New Zealand). This committee has been established under the Animal Welfare Act to provide independent advice to the Minister for Primary Industries about: ethical and animal welfare issues relating to the use of animals in research, testing and teaching; recommendations on the restrictions of use of non-human hominids; advice to Animal Ethics Committees; the development and review of codes of ethical conduct. A full list of NAEAC’s functions can be found under section 63 of the Animal Welfare Act 1999. In addition, NAEAC produces an annual report and these can be found at:

June 2019- Member of the Medicines Assessment Advisory Committee.The Medicines Assessment Advisory Committee (MAAC) is a technical advisory committee established under section 8 of the Medicines Act 1981 to advise the Minister of Health on the risk-benefit profile of new medicines.

1999- Consultant Toxicologist for New Zealand Companies through UniServices Ltd

Source of reference for toxicology-related questions from the media.

Editorial Board member and Associate Editor: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (2015-)


Reviewer for the following international journals:

Toxicology; Food & Chemical Toxicology; Chemico-Biological Interactions; Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology; Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology; Biochemical Pharmacology; Toxicological Sciences; Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; Drug Metabolism Letters; Journal of Medicinal Chemistry; Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology; Drug Testing & Analysis; New Zealand Medical Journal; Journal of Aquatic Animal Health; Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology; Psychiatry Depression and anxiety


Selected publications and creative works (Research Outputs)

As of 29 October 2020 there will be no automatic updating of 'selected publications and creative works' from Research Outputs. Please continue to keep your Research Outputs profile up to date.
  • Siu, J., Klingler, L., Wang, Y., Hung, C.-T., Jeong, S. H., Smith, S., ... Douglas, R. G. (2020). Oral antibiotics used in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis have limited penetration into the sinonasal mucosa: a randomized trial. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems, 1-8. 10.1080/00498254.2020.1814973
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Soo Hee Jeong, Kristi Biswas, Richard Douglas, Brett Wagner
  • Cameron, R., & Tingle, M. (2020). The British Pharmacological Society undergraduate curriculum in a New Zealand setting. Paper presented at Pharmacology 2019, Edinburgh, Scotland. 15 December - 17 December 2019. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Related URL.
  • Burns, K. E., Deane-Alder, K. D., Bellissima, B. L., & Tingle, M. D. (2020). Circulating microRNA as biomarkers of clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity. Biomarkers, 25 (1), 76-85. 10.1080/1354750X.2019.1693631
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Katie Burns
  • Siu, J., Tingle, M. D., & Douglas, R. G. (2019). Measuring antibiotic levels and their relationship with the microbiome in chronic rhinosinusitis. The Journal of laryngology and otology, 1-5. 10.1017/s0022215119001932
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Richard Douglas
  • Ruddy, B. P., Bullen, C., Chu, J. T. W., Jeong, S. H., Madadkhahsalmassi, B., McKeage, J. W., ... Taberner, A. J. (2019). Subcutaneous nicotine delivery via needle-free jet injection: A porcine model. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 306, 83-88. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.05.040
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Bryan Ruddy, Chris Bullen, Joanna Chu, Soo Hee Jeong, James McKeage, Darren Svirskis, Andrew Taberner
  • Jeong, S. H., Sheridan, J., Bullen, C., Newcombe, D., Walker, N., & Tingle, M. (2019). Ascending single dose pharmacokinetics of cytisine in healthy adult smokers. Xenobiotica10.1080/00498254.2018.1557760
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: David Newcombe, Soo Hee Jeong, Janie Sheridan, Chris Bullen, Natalie Walker
  • Burns, K. E., Shepherd, P., Finlay, G., Tingle, M. D., & Helsby, N. A. (2018). Indirect regulation of CYP2C19 gene expression via DNA methylation. Xenobiotica, 48 (8), 781-792. 10.1080/00498254.2017.1372648
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Katie Burns, Nuala Helsby, Graeme Finlay
  • Bellissima, B. L., Tingle, M. D., Cicović A, Alawami, M., & Kenedi, C. (2018). Corrigendum to "A systematic review of clozapine-induced myocarditis" [Int. J. Cardiol. 259(2018) 122-129]. International journal of cardiology, 26310.1016/j.ijcard.2018.03.091


Contact details

Primary office location

M&HS BUILDING 503 - Bldg 503
Level 3, Room 302
New Zealand

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